- B.S. - Ursinus College
- M.A. - The Catholic University of America
- Ph.D. (Experimental & Physiological Psychology) - The Catholic University of America
My research interests derive from intersecting areas of evolutionary and forensic psychology. The focus of my research is on violence prevention. Methods of improving self-defense self-efficacy for women are of special interest. Current research projects involve gender differences in threat perception, physical self-efficacy, assertiveness, and vulnerability to assault. Several preliminary studies in the development of an "attitudes toward self-defense" scale and an "attitudes towards weapons" scale are ongoing.